What is Renaissance ? how the Renaissance the Enlightenment contribute to the making of modern world?

Eighteenth century is remarkable in the history of Europe because it ushered in a new era. Significant developments could be seen in the field of art, architecture and literature. Renaissance brought a new vision in man’s life. It emphasizes on the creative power of man as an architect of his own destiny. Established dogmas and notions began to be questioned under scientific advancement. Renaissance is an Italian word meaning re-birth. It is associated with major social and cultural developments in Europe between 13th and the 15th centuries. Renaissance contributed greatly to the creation of modern Europe. It laid the foundation stone on which modern Europe has been built, the features of renaissance includes formation of new ideologies, procures and discoveries, debates But some of the critics are of the opinion that renaissance provided essential ingredients or raw materials for the modern Europe. It was the enlightenment that laid the foundation of the modern world. According the turn of 18th and 19th centuries, it became obvious that the western societies were undergoing a radical structural change. In different fields like science, technology and production enormous growth could be seen that initiated a radical change of the western European society. Renaissance is immediately followed by reformation. It also contributed enormously to the spirit of self consciousness by privatizing religious practice and Protestantism. The major socio-cultural developments in Europe during the 13th-15th centuries were codified as renaissance. The new vision glorified individual .the new secular and individualistic values which were somewhat incompatible with Christian beliefs, constituted a new worldly philosophy of life known as humanism, drawing its main ideas and inspiration from ancient times. It is the only moral basis which inspired questioning about the feudal and Christian inheritances in Europe. New groups were emerged known as lawyers and notaries. They drew up and interpreted the rules and written agreement without which trade on a large scale was not possible with the growing development of commerce and trade there was a acute need for men skilled in drafting, recording and authenticating contract and letters. There were the notaries and specialists to do this work. During this period a new culture also emerged known as humanism renaissance .humanism was a new philosophy of life which glorified human nature in secular terms. The humanist self-image as free agents of civilization was sharpened by a new historical consciousness which enabled them to distinguish their time as an age of light in comparison with the preceding age. The humanists belonging to different generation thought themselves as a part of new generation. The renaissance had important implications for education. Petrarch’s dream of a cultural and moral generation of Christian society, based on the union of eloquence and philosophy, had important implications for education. Humanism also gained dominance with the evolution of a new art called printing. By 1500, many classical texts had been printed in Italy, mostly in Latin. But the most important development could be seen in the field of religion. One of the most important features of the renaissance is a beginning of a loosening control of religion over human life. Renaissance created conditions for the emergence of secular ideology. Apart from pursuit of glory, the self development of individual personality emerged as another social ideal. Eighteenth century Europe witnessed very wide sweeping changes in all spheres of life. After renaissance came the age of reason which was popularly known as the age of enlightenment. The enlightenment men were not irreligious but they were bitterly against the institutions of Christianity. The age of reason of enlightenment generally used the scientific method of enquiry to launch a systematic attack or established religious norms and traditions. Enlightenment theorists emphasized on liberty, freedom and happiness for all. Enlightenment advocates twin belief that a) the present was better and more advanced than the past, and b) this advancement has resulted in the happiness of man. The growth in scientific knowledge had given the enlightenment grounds for being optimistic.

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