Food are very essential for all living creatures.The major components of our food are carbohydrates, protein, fats, vitamins and minerals. These components provide energy, help in growth and developments and repair of the damaged parts of the body. They also develop resistance to diseases. A balanced diet contains all the nutrients and its varies according to the need of the body. The deficiency of these nutrients in food causes deficiency diseases. Malnutrition is the main cause of these diseases. Excessive intake of nutrition’s also leads to the abnormal functioning of the body. obesity and hypervitaminosis are examples of overnutration. Living organisms constantly interact with the environment. Disequilibrium is the environment may lead to diseases in living beings. In additional to extrinsic factors, disease may also arise due to intrinsic reasons or factors. Organic or metabolic diseases are caused due to intrinsic factors.
Lack of nutrients in the diet causes deficiency diseases and Deficiency of carbohydrates, proteins and fast leads to protein, energy malnutrition. Also Anemia, goiter, rickets and osteomalacia are common mineral deficiency diseases.
Some of the important diseases caused by the deficiency of Vitamins are: night blindness, beriberi, pellagra, scurvy, rickets etc. proteins, carbohydrates and fat deficiency leads to protein, energy deficiency diseases. This is the most common nutritional disorder which affects children in our country in the age group of 1 to 5 years. Vitamin and mineral deficiencies are also very common. About 1% of pre-school children in India and other Developing countries suffer from kwashiorkor. Diseases like marasmus are caused due to the inadequacy of diet in children below the age of one year. The main cause of marasmus is the deficiency of carbohydrates, protein and fats. This is very common disease among the poor people. This disease can be controlled by giving adequate amounts of all the above nutrients.
The deficiency of vitamin A leads to night blindness in which persons cannot see in dim light. Beriberi is caused by the deficiency of vitamin B. Pellagra is common in those people who are mainly maize caters. The deficiency of vitamin C and vitamin D causes scurvy and rickets respectively. Calcium and phosphorus are two minerals which make our bones and teeth strong. The deficiency of these minerals causes rickets in children and Osteomalacia in adults. In rickets the bones become twisted or bent. This disease can be prevented by giving cod liver oil and proper exposure to sunlight. In Osteomalacia bones become soft and fragile. This disease occurs due to the deficiency of calcium, phosphorus and vitamin D in food. It is common in women, especially when they are in pregnancy and during the lactation period. Milk and liver are rich sources of calcium and phosphorus. Their intake in adequate quantities improves the patient’s health. Mineral deficiency can also lead to deficiency diseases. Anemia can be identified when the person looks pale, tire easily, feels exhausted and loses weight. Iron deficiency results in hemoglobin deficiency in the blood. This disease can be cured by taking an adequate amount of iron in the diet. The deficiency of iodine in the diet leads of goiter. In goiter, the neck seems swollen, the body weight increases, and disorders of the nervous system leads to imbalance in the body. This disease is very common in hilly areas.so we need to follow some roles for taking foods.