In what ways revolution in the realm of knowledge influences the modern world

The modern world has experienced broadly speaking, two kind of revolutions. One type of revolutions is those which bring considerable social and political changes in an existing order. Political and social revolutions like the French and the Russian are example of this. Another type of revolutions is those which had a greater impact on the field of knowledge and social communication. One of the central transformations of the modern era has concerned the organization of the ways in which knowledge is transmitted. At the same time peoples capacities to receive this knowledge has also been shaped. In the 17th to 18th century certain major changes began to take place in educational practice and ideology in this period. Latin has come up as the medium of construction. This heralded a move towards the identification of the kind of the education one received with the cultural and political identity one bore. The eighteenth century enlightenment produces different schools of thought around the question of education. One hand the Italian philosopher Giambattistavico stressed the role of imagination in the creation of human personality. Some German ideologies regard that a severely regimented education for children in necessary. In the late eighteen century, elementary education spread in absolute terms. Education was a major concern in many European countries. With increasing state control over education was the process of nationalization. Major structural changes in the economy and society underpinned the enormous expansion of education in the nineteenth century. With growth of industrialization the spread of elementary education to the proletariat became a concern of state and public. The first half of the 19th century saw significant growth in pedagogical thought reformers like john heinrich pestalozzi at the beginning of this period propounded the idea that the innate character of the child, rather than external characters or structures of arts and sciences should be the basis of a comprehensive intellectual, moral and physical educational programmed. Over the course of the 19th century, national schooling systems came to be fully articulated in many countries. Germany witnessed the fastest development of the structures of national education in this time. Compulsory school attendance was established by the second half of the 18th century and in 1794 a law declaring state supremacy over education was passed. In France the universal right to education was proclaimed as a revolutionary principle in 1791. England followed a slightly different trajectory. In 1796 society for bettering the conditions of the poor, was set up in 1760. In 1880 parliament passed an elementary education act. In India in the early nineteenth century due to initiatives taken by social reformers like Ram Mohan Roy, New education policies set up. In the 20th century education retained and intensified its role as a catalyst of social change. Two world wars also had great influences on education. Industrial and scientific development in the west called into being new kinds of training in new kind of technical knowledge. Theories of education in the twentieth century have taken many forms, increasingly informed by reliance on the findings and methods of other disciplines. Revolution in the field of printing and publishing brought a new era. Johannes Gutenberg invented the first modern press. This new type of printing is different from block printing. Gradually the art of printing spread across the world. The industrialization of printing in the 19th century radically reduced publishing costs. In the 20th century book publishing became a large industry. Prior to the 18th century, the book in Europe had generally been seen as form of social discipline. In the 20th century readership expanded further. The emergence of news, as the given quantity of information that large members of people have regular access to through determinate media, is perhaps the most important dimension of the knowledge revolution in modern times. And news papers stood, for many generations in the center of this momentous change. Till the turn of the 19th century and the advent of industrial revolution news coverage was sporadic over the course of the 20th century. They were gradually supplanted as the most advanced disseminators of knowledge and information by what we call the audio visual media, radio and television. The first known radio programmer was broadcast in Massachusetts in the U.S.A on Christmas Eve. Politicians soon realized the enormous potential of radio to shape public opinion and deployed this in qualitatively new kinds of political campaigns. The last of the major revolutions in the dissemination of knowledge and social communication up till the present day is the internet. Since the 1970s and 1980s the internet has undergone many changes. Still, the internet remains, in many ways, the touch stone in knowledge sharing and dissemination.

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