Capitalist development of the world affected the environment considerably. The nineteenth and twentieth centuries were remarkable as they saw major development in science and technology. But capitalist development took place only in some selected countries only. Capitalism was like a hungry giant whose insatiable hunger could only be fed by exploiting the colonies of Asia, Africa, and the America, which were very rapidly coming under European control. These are the dilemmas of development. The whole scenario was made more complex by imperialism. But capitalist transformation of a society can be traced back as early as the 18th century, European move out of their homelands, fired by a new spirit of adventures or because of a sudden population increase. But their attitudes were different to the new lands they entered. As a result many ecological changes took place. These changes were not always good. The natural abundance of the tropics seemed to contrast with the frugality of nature in Europe, Another type of reactions, which is a result of extreme mentality, or a hostile attitude, towards the existing flora and fauna. The marshes and swamps were seen as breeding grounds of disease and must be cleared. Another reaction which came later but became very pre-dominant was of interest in the exploitability of these natural resources and their commercial value. Nature was seen as an inner hostile source which could be put to productive use. In the process of tapping natural resources, much of the existing natural vegetation and animals were destroyed. The European settler came to the new world, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and other lesser-known parts of the world. They also brought plants and animals from the native land, the new animals also needed certain kinds of plodders and grasses for their survival. These grasses were often imported from the home countries and would spread like wild fire. The existing grasses and weeds were wiped out as a result. In New Zealand there were no large native predators—i.e. all the world livestock that had been introduced i.e. pigs, goats, horses, and sheep—multiplied very rapidly and soon outnumbered the human population. The Himalayan Tahr a long haired mountain goat created riot in South Africa in the 1920.some three or four specimen were brought for a zoo at the base of Table Mountains. The goat managed to escape and created a panic by threatening the natural habitat of the region. South African national parks authority decided to kill these animals. But the decision has triggered a controversy. A group animal lover formed a support group called friends of the Tahr (FOTT).thus ecological changes are of two types, one is intended and another one is unintended. But both of them had very grievous consequences, they are responsible for disturbing the ecological balance seriously. In many cases these changes ultimately lead to reperfusions can affect not only plant and animal species but also entire races of humans. It has been seen that introduction of new ani8mal and plant species sometimes resulted in the wiping, out of the indigenous species, so the coming of Europeans to the new world could mean the extermination of large sections of the existing population in that region. In central and south America, the Incas and the Aztecs were suddenly exposed to the smallpox virus when the Spaniards arrived in those land areas in the second decade of the 16th century. Since the Aztecs and the Incas were not immunized, the disease spread rapidly and caused huge loss of lives. This led to demoralization and political collapse. A few hundred adventurers led by Herman Cortes defeated five million strong empire of Montezuma in the Mexico region. As there was no-clear successor, the Spanish conqueror Francisco pizarro could easily conquer the area. The conquest of the Caribbean islands and formation of America by British colonies also hampered the interests of the indigenous Red Indians to a great extent.